Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)

In this video I explain the concept of long-term potentiation, which refers to the strengthening of neural connections due to repeated synchronous firing. Repeated firing leads to changes in chemical signaling between the two neurons, influencing neurotransmitter and receptor activity. Next I introduce an example of this with the possible role of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (for the neurotransmitter glutamate) in …

Biology of Memory: The Hippocampus

In this video I introduce the biology of memory and the role of the hippocampus on long-term memory formation. I discuss several cases of severe memory loss including patients H.M. and E.P., who suffered anterograde amnesia and cannot form new memories, and Clive Wearing, who also suffers from retrograde amnesia and is unable to recall his past. These case studies …

Pain Perception

In this video I go into more detail on pain perception. First I discuss the importance of pain as a signal of danger or harm to the body. Next I explain the two types of nerve fibers which carry different pain messages: A-delta fibers for sharp, intense pains and C-fibers for dull, throbbing pains. I provide a mnemonic for remembering …

Chromosomal Abnormalities and Molecular Genetics

In this video I introduce examples of molecular genetics and how specific genes or chromosomes can influence traits, behaviors, or illnesses. The difference between genetic and inherited is defined and several chromosomal abnormalities are explained including Down Syndrome, Turner Syndrome, and Klinefelter Syndrome. I also mention Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) and its relationship to karyotype in understanding situations in which …

What is Heritability?

In this video I provide a basic introduction to twin studies and heritability scores. I explain how a heritability score tells us about the role of genes in explaining variance in a trait. I also discuss some common errors and emphasize that heritability is about the role of genes in general, not about specific genes, and that it only tells …

Introduction to Genetics and Shared Genes

In this video I provide a basic introduction to genetics and explain genes, genomes, DNA, chromosomes, and genetic relatedness of parents, offspring, siblings, and identical and fraternal twins. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me …

Split Brains: What Happens When You Sever the Corpus Callosum?

In this video I cover research by Roger Sperry and Michael Gazzaniga on split brain patients who have had the corpus callosum severed. I explain some hemispheric specializations such as speech production and facial recognition as well as how visual information is separated into each hemisphere at the optic chiasm according to visual field.   Don’t forget to subscribe to …

Parts of the Brain: Forebrain – Cerebral Cortex

In this video I continue explaining parts of the brain and focus on the cerebral cortex. The cortex is the thin, wrinkled, outer covering of the brain and the wrinkles and folds create gyri, sulci, and fissures. The cortex is divided into two hemispheres, left and right, each with 4 lobes: frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital. Don’t forget to subscribe …

Parts of the Brain: Forebrain – Subcortical Structures

In this video I continue covering parts of the brain and move to the subcortical structures of the forebrain including the thalamus, pituitary gland, limbic system (hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala), basal ganglia, and corpus callosum. I also mention the Genes to Cognition site (link below) which has an excellent interactive 3D brain feature which can help you to learn brain …

Parts of the Brain: Hindbrain Structures

In this video I explain the main regions of the brain: the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain, as well as the difference between the “old” and “new” brain in evolutionary terms. Then the location and function of four main areas of the hindbrain (medulla, reticular formation, cerebellum, and pons) are explained. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future …