Long-Term Memory

In this video I cover the final box in the 3-box model of memory, long-term memory. Long-term memory is generally considered to have an unlimited capacity and thus is never “full”. I explain different types of long-term memory which can be broadly divided into explicit (or declarative) memory and implicit (or non-declarative) memory. These can then be further divided into …

Short-Term Memory & Working Memory

In this video I cover the second box in the 3-box model, short-term memory, in greater detail. I explain the limited capacity of this store, George Miller’s “Magical Number 7”, and how organizational encoding and chunking may appear to expand this capacity without necessarily increasing the number of “items” being held. This concept of organizing and manipulating information in this …

The Sensory Memory Store

In this video I cover the first box in the 3-box model, sensory memory, in greater detail. I explain how this store refers to information from all of the senses, though individual senses can be specified using terms like iconic memory or echoic memory. I also describe how the brief duration of sensory memory relates to managing the constant flow …

Introduction to Memory

In this video I begin the memory unit by introducing a few key terms (encoding, storage, and retrieval), explaining why it’s important not to extend the “mind as computer” analogy too far, and briefly outlining the 3-Box model of memory first proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin, which includes stores for sensory, short-term, and long-term memory. Don’t forget to …

Abstract Learning & Insight Learning

In this video I describe abstract learning and insight learning as types of learning that both require internal cognitive processing. Abstract learning demonstrates how mental concepts and categories relate to stimulus generalization while insight learning demonstrates the use of mental representations of the world rather than simple trial-and-error behavior learning and reinforcement. These types of learning, in addition to latent …

Latent Learning & Cognitive Maps

In this video I explain the concept of latent learning using two studies conducted by Edward Tolman and colleagues. Latent learning refers to learning that occurs without reinforcement and isn’t demonstrated until an opportunity arises. I also describe the idea of a cognitive map and how it supports the existence of internal mental representations. Don’t forget to subscribe to the …

Observational Learning: Bandura’s Bobo Doll Study

In this video I explain Albert Bandura’s famous “Bobo Doll” study on observational learning and aggressive behavior. In this study, adults modeled aggressive playing behaviors with a Bobo doll which were then performed by children who had simply observed the behaviors, revealing how observation can influence behavior. In later versions of the study, Bandura also demonstrated that the children’s behavior …

The Rescorla-Wagner Model

In this video I explain the basic idea behind the Rescorla-Wagner model or contingency model of classical conditioning proposed by Robert Rescorla and Allan Wagner. This model suggests that the reason Pavlov’s dogs associated the bell (rather than some other stimulus) with food was that it was salient and served as a reliable predictor of food. Don’t forget to subscribe …

The Premack Principle

In this video I describe the Premack Principle which refers to the idea that behaviors can be high or low probability which in turn means that high probability behaviors can serve as reinforcement for low probability behaviors. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future …

Chaining, Shaping, & Instinctive Drift

In this video I describe the how conditioning to be used to train more complex behaviors. This can be accomplished with chaining, which involves linking together previously conditioned behaviors, and shaping, which involves reinforcing successive approximations of a desired behavior. Next I provide examples of behaviors which cannot be conditioned due to biological constraints on learning described by Keller and …