Ethical Guidelines for Psychological Research

In this video I explain the major ethical guidelines for conducting research in psychology with human subjects including informed consent, freedom from coercion, protection from harm, risk-benefit analysis, anonymity and/or confidentiality, and debriefing. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know …

External Validity

In this video I explain external validity (or ecological validity) and criticisms of artificiality that can arise from laboratory experimentation. I also explain naturalistic observation and field experiments as ways of overcoming artificiality and collecting real-life data, though both of these approaches have the disadvantage of sacrificing control over potential confounding variables. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to …

Internal Validity

In this video I explain the concept of internal validity and how it acts as a checklist for considering whether an independent variable has been effectively manipulated, a dependent variable has been measured without bias, and a clear pattern can be found in the data. I also mention the importance of avoiding simple yes/no answers and remembering that all of …

Frequency Distributions, Normal Curves, and Skew

In this video I explain how a frequency distribution can create a visual representation of our data. I also describe a normal curve or “bell curve” and what it means for mean, median, and mode. Then I consider skewed distributions with positive or negative skew. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics …

Understanding Significance and P-values

In this video I explain the concept of significance and how it relates to both effect size, sample size, and the law of large numbers. The role of a p-value in describing the likelihood of data is explained with an emphasis on avoiding misinterpretation or confusing low p-value with support for a particular hypothesis. Don’t forget to subscribe to the …

Measures of Variance: Range and Standard Deviation

In this video I describe two more descriptive statistics, both of which are measures of variance: the range and the standard deviation. I explain what the standard deviation tells us about a distribution of scores and how it is calculated. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered …

Difference between a Theory and a Hypothesis

In this video I describe the difference between a theory and a hypothesis. I also explain how evidence can support or refute a hypothesis but can never prove a theory. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or …

Measures of Central Tendency

In this video I cover descriptive statistics and three measures of central tendency; the mean, median, and mode. The calculation of each is explained, as well as potential problems, such as the mean’s sensitivity to extreme scores, especially in small samples. I also discuss the possibility of multimodal and uniform distributions. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see …

The Experimental Method

In this video I explain the experimental method and how the combination of manipulation and random assignment can help to eliminate the third variable problem. I also explain why random assignment helps avoid self-selection and bias so that we can assess the role of the independent variable on the dependent variable. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see …

The Third Variable Problem

In this video I explain the third variable problem in correlational studies, how matched samples and matched pairs can be used to eliminate a possible third variable, and why measurement alone can never truly solve the third variable problem. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in …